CSM+B Trace Elements
The ready mix follows a recipe of the most popular micro elements mix in the history of aquarium plants fertilisers. Simply mix in 500ml of distilled, RO or boiled water (boil for 3 minutes and then let it drop to room temperature). The mix contains E202 and E300 preservatives.
Fe – 7,80%, Mn- 2,00%, B – 1,40%,
Zn- 0,40%, Cu – 0,10%, Mo – 0,06%
E 202 & E 300
DOSING: 2 ml a day per 100L fish tank
10g CSM+B mix with 500ml water, 1ml solution per 100 l of tank water yields a concentration of 0.015ppm Fe
10g CSM+B should last for about 250 days (for a 100L aquarium)
Store in dark place, in room temperature.
Good To Know
Iron is a microelement; a dry plant contains about 100 mg/kg of iron. This element is key for the process of chlorophyll synthesis. Iron is a component of some proteins and it plays a role in cellular respiration. When it comes to its mobility, iron is an intermediate element therefore symptoms of its deficiency occur in younger, but also sometimes in older, leaves first. Plants absorb iron in the form of ions Fe(2+) lub Fe(3+). This element should be always provided in the chelated form, otherwise it will be precipitated from water in the form of insoluble oxides and hydroxides which are not absorbed by plants.
Optimal dose is highly dependable on the type of chelate used, water hardness and on the light intensity. All of these parameters may have an effect on iron chelate stability. Generally speaking, the higher the pH, GH and light intensity, the higher iron doses need to be. Some aquarians dose even up to 1ppm of Fe a week.
Iron deficiency is quite common. When it occurs, it impedes plants’ growth. Usually the first symptom is interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. The contrast between areas affected by chlorosis and green veins is very noticeable. In more deficient environment, even the veins are affected by chlorosis. Finally, the whole leaves become yellow or even white. Symptoms may be also visible on older leaves. The youngest leaves may show a general chlorosis and older may show interveinal chlorosis. The size of the leaves may also decrease. Necrosis occurs in very severe cases.
Generally, excess of iron is quite unlikely. If it occurs, the symptoms then are noticeable on leaves located in the middle and at the bottom of a plant. At the beginning, chlorotic (or brown) spots appear which with time increase in size and turn into necrosis. Other sources suggest that the colour of leaves becomes dark-green (also brown or lilac) and also growth of sprouts and roots may be impeded.
Manganese is a microelement; a dry plant contains about 50 mg/kg of manganese. It is an activator and a component of many enzymes (e.g., enzymes essential for nitrate reduction, those involved in citric acid synthesis, those involved in protein transportation and storage, and those involved in transformation of sugars and starch). Manganese is also essential in the process of oxygen production during photosynthesis. When it comes to its mobility, manganese is an intermediate element. The symptoms of its deficiency may differ depending on plant species. They may occur in younger, slightly or much older, leaves first which makes the diagnosis more difficult. Plants absorb manganese in the form of cation Mn(2+). Manganese gets easily oxidised to the level 4+ in alkaline environment and in this form it cannot be absorbed by plants and is toxic. In acid (low pH) environment it gets reduced to Mn2+. There is a strict relation between manganese and iron levels in water. Manganese excess causes iron being lost from chelates and its oxidising to the forms unabsorbable to plants. On the other hand, manganese deficiencies cause iron excess in plants – which needs to be considered while planning iron dosing. The most commonly used source of manganese is Mn-EDTA.
The symptoms of deficiency may differ depending on a plant – they may occur in younger, slightly or much older, leaves first. With time they may spread throughout the whole plant. The growth of plants may be impeded. Interveinal chlorosis of the leaves (in more severe cases the leaves may even become white) occurs. Unlike in the case of iron deficiency, there is no clear contrast between areas affected by chlorosis and green veins. In manganese deficiency the contrast is rather gentle. The veins usually remain green while the surround areas are light green or yellow. Sometimes white or yellow threads or brown and/or black spots may appear. In more severe deficiencies, necrotic spots or necrosis of leaves’ edges occur. Leaf fall and blossoming inhibition may also be evident. In aquariums, another noticeable sign of manganese deficiency is when there are no oxygen bubbles released by the plants.
Symptoms are usually visible on leaves located in the middle and at the bottom of a plant. At first, the symptoms of manganese excess may resemble the symptoms of manganese deficiency, that is brown, black, or sometimes red spots on leaves turning to chlorosis or necrosis. Other sources suggest that it is the uneven distribution of chlorophyll that leads to chlorosis or necrosis. Roots growth inhibition may also occur. In some cases, brown spots surrounded by a distinctive yellow rim may appear. Manganese excess may also lead to iron deficiency.
Boron is a microelement; a dry plant contains about 20 mg/kg of boron. This element is involved in the processes of cell walls building, cell division and sugar transport. Pectin, lignin and cellulose (cell walls building materials) synthesis is not possible without boron. Boron is also essential for appropriate metabolism of carbohydrates. Boron easily reacts with other organic compounds. Boron is a non mobile element therefore its deficiencies are limited to growing points and the youngest leaves. In order to grow, plants need stable access to an accurate amount of boron. Plants absorb boron in the form of ions H2BO3(-), BO3(3-), B4O7(2-). The most commonly used source of boron is boric acid (H3BO3). The range of appropriate level of boron is very narrow therefore it is relatively easy to overdose. Concentration of over 0,5 mg/l may already be toxic for some plants in hydroponic cultivation. Dosing optimisation proves to be difficult due to varying levels different plants’ requirements; the same level may lead to deficiencies in some plants but in others may be toxic. Low water pH increases boron absorption. Boron helps calcium absorption.
Usual symptoms are: irregular, twisted, frail and cracking leaves, particularly noticeable in aponogeton (especially in the aponogeton madagascariensis). Aponogetons are the biggest boron receivers.
Usual symptoms are growth inhibition, growing points, sprouts and roots decay. Also a decay of the main point may be reported.
Zinc activates plant enzymes, is involved in protein and amino acid (tryptophan) synthesis. Tryptophan is used for auxin production – a plant hormone that promotes root formation and bud growth. Plants absorb zinc in the form of cation Zn and only in this level of oxidation can be found as a mineral or organic compound. In plants, zinc is an element that if once combined cannot be transferred. Zinc can be delivered in the form of zinc sulphate or zinc oxide.
Zinc deficiency is noticeable on the youngest leaves, first they become yellow and then newer young leaves are smaller and deformed. The plants’ growth is stopped and rotting starts. High level of phosphates decreases zinc absorption.
Key indicators of zinc excess are smaller than usual leaves as well as generally impeded growth of the plants.
Copper is involved in photosynthesis energy transport, is a component of enzymes responsible for gas exchange processes, it activates vitamins B and C. Plants absorb copper in the form of cation Cu2+. It can be easily reduced or oxidised, therefore in water solutions it needs to be protected with chelates. Copper can be also provided in the form of copper sulphate, which also has algaecide properties. Copper dosing needs to be done with caution as its excess is very dangerous to all living organisms.
Usually occurs in young leaves and only in growing points and in the core of the plants. Firstly younger parts of the plants become white, then they become transparent and decay.
Excess of copper can be indicated by brown, dark, large spots on leaves leading to wrinkled leaf blade also by generally impeded plant growth.
In excess harmful to living organisms
Molybdenum is an activator of enzymes responsible for nitrogen transformation in cells; it reduces nitrogen to the form of ammonia. Molybdenum also stimulates production of enzymes responsible for absorption of other microelements. Plants absorb molybdenum in the form of oxidised anion Mo2O; it can be oxidised to -5 or -6 which suggests that this element is involved in nitric processes.
Occurance of this molybdenum in plants is the lowest of all microelements and the fact that it participates in secondary cycling of minerals shows why this element’s deficiencies are seldom. All types of water have some level of molybdenum, it also occurs as a side product (is precipitated) in the production of acids used to reduce pH in aquarium water. Noticeable deficits are following: unnaturally bent leaves, nitrate chlorosis, discolouring and deformation of young leaves and of growing points.
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